Publications (* indicates corresponding author, + students, ++ postdoc in the EMAIL team)


Xu, Z., Yu, G.*, Zhang, X.*, He, N., Wang, Q., Wang, S., Xu X.F, Wang, R., and Zhao, N.: Divergence of dominant factors on soil microbial communities and functions in forest ecosystems along a climatic gradient, Biogeosciences Discuss.,, in review.

+Tang D.D., ++Ma C, +Wang Y., Xu X.F.*, (2017) Multi-Scale Evaluation of NCEP and CRUNCEP datasets at 90 Large U.S. Cities. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere. doi: 10.1002/2016JD026165.

++Song, X.*, Hoffman F.M., Iversen C.M., Yin Y.H., Kumar J., ++Ma C., Xu X.F.*, (2017) Significant inconsistency of vegetation carbon density in CMIP5 Earth System Models against observational data. JGR-Biogeosciences. doi: 10.1002/2017JG003914.

Xu, X.F*, Schimel, J.P., Janssens, I.A., Song, X., Song, C., Yu, G., Sinsabaugh, R.L., +Tang, D., ++Zhang, X. & Thornton, P.E. (2017) Global Pattern and Controls of Soil Microbial Metabolic Quotient. Ecological Monographs. doi: 10.1002/ecm.1258.

Sinsabaugh R.L.*, Moorhead D.L., Xu X.F., Litvak M.E. (2017) Plant, microbial and ecosystem carbon use efficiencies interact to stabilize microbial growth as a fraction of gross primary production, New Phytologists. doi:10.1111/nph.14485.

Zhang L.H.*, Hou L.Y., Guo D.F., Li L.H., Xu, X. F.*, (2017) Interactive impacts of nitrogen and water amendment on growing season fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O in a semiarid grassland, Northern China, The Science of the Total Environment, 578, 523-534.


Tang, G.P, Zheng, J., Xu, X.F, Yang, Z., Graham, D. E., Gu, B., Painter, S., and Thornton, P. E. (2016) Biogeochemical model of CO2 and CH4 production in anoxic Arctic soil microcosms, Biogeosciences., 13, 5021-5041, doi:10.5194/bg-13-5021-2016.

Hanson, P.J.*, Gill A.L., Xu, X.F, Philips, J.R., Weston D.J., Kokla R.K., Riggs, J.S., Hook, L.A. (2016) Intermediate-scale community-level flux of CO2 and CH4 in a Mineesota peatland: putting SPRUCE project in a global context. Biogeochemistry, DOI: 10.1007/s10533-016-0230-8.

Xu, X.F*, Yuan, F., Hanson, P. J., Wullschleger, S. D., Thornton, P. E., Riley, W. J., Song, X., Graham, D. E., Song, C., and Tian, H. (2016) Reviews and syntheses: Four Decades of Modeling Methane Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems, Biogeosciences, 13, 3735-3755, doi:10.5194/bg-13-3735-2016.

Tang, G., Yuan F., Bisht G., Hammond G.E., Lichtner P.., Kumar J., Mills R.T., Xu X.F., Andre B., Hoffman F.M., Painter S.L.*, Thornton P.E*. (2016). Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: a biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM–PFLOTRAN 1.0, Model Dev., 9, 927-946, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-927-2016.

Luo, Y., Ahlström, A., Allison, S.D., Batjes, N.H., Brovkin, V., Carvalhais, N., Chappell, A., Ciais, P., Davidson, E.A., Finzi, A., Georgiou, K., Guenet, B., Hararuk, O., Harden, J.W., He, Y., Hopkins, F.M., Jiang, L., Koven, C.D., Jackson, R.B., Jones, C.D., Lara, M.J., Liang, J., McGuire, A.D., Parton, W., Peng, C., Randerson, J.T., Salazar, A., sierra, C.A., Smith, M., Tian, H., Todd-Brown, K.E., Torn, M., van Groenendael, J., Wang, Y.-P., West, T.O., Wei, Y., Wieder, W.R., Xia, J., Xu, X., Xu, X.F. & Zhou, T. (2016) Towards More Realistic Projections of Soil Carbon Dynamics by Earth System Models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005239.


Xu X.F., Hui D.F., King A.W., Song X., Thornton P.E., Zhang L.H. (2015) Convergence of microbial assimilations of soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in terrestrial ecosystems. Scientific Reports, 5, 17445, doi: 10.1038/srep17445.

Wieder W., Allison S.D., Davidson E.A., Georgiou K., Hararuk O., He Y., Hopkins F., Luo Y., Smith M., Sulman B., Todd-Brown K., Wang Y., Xia J., Xu X.F. (2015) Explicitly representing soil microbial processes in Earth system models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005188.

Xu, X.F, Goswami, S.*, Gulledge, J., Wullschleger, S.D. & Thornton, P.E. (2015) Interdisciplinary Research in Climate and Energy Sciences. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, DOI: 10.1002/wene.180. (Invited submission)

Wang Y.S., Cheng S.L, Fang H.J.*, Yu G.R., Xu X.F., Xu M.J., Wang L., Li X.Y., Geng J., He S. (2015) Contrasting effects of ammonium and nitrate inputs on soil CO2 emission in a subtropical coniferous plantation of Southern China. Biology and Fertility of Soils, DOI: 10.1007/s00374-015-1028-x.

Xu, X.F, Elias, D.A., Graham, D.E., Phelps, T.J., Carrol, S.L. & Thornton, P.E.* (2015) A microbial functional group based module for simulating methane production and consumption: application to an incubation permafrost soil. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, DOI: 10.1002/2015JG002935.

Tian H.Q, Chen G., Lu C, Xu X.F., Ren W, Zhang B., Banger K., Tao B., Pan S., Liu M., Zhang C., Bruhwiler L, Wofsy S. (2015) Global methane and nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems due to multiple environmental changes, Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 1:art4.


Xu Y., Wang D.*, Janjusic T., Xu X.F., (2014) A web-based visual analytic system for understanding the structure of Community Land Model. International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice. 3-9.

Wullschleger S.D.*, Epstein H.E., Box E.O., Euskirchen E.S., Goswami S., Iversen C.M., Kattge J., Norby R.J., van Bodegom P.M., Xu X.F. (2014) Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems, Annals of Botany. DOI:10.1093/aob/mcu077 (Invited Review)

Xu X.F., Joshua Schimel, Peter E. Thornton., Xia Song., Fengming Yuan, Santonu Goswami, (2014) Substrate and environmental controls on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon: a framework for Earth system models. Ecology Letters, DOI: 10.1111/ele.12254.

Tian H.Q., Chen G.S., Lu C., Xu X.F., Hayes D.J., Ren W, Pan S., Huntzinger D.N., Wofsy S.C. (2014) North American terrestrial CO2 uptake largely offset by CH4 and N2O emissions: toward a full accounting of the greenhouse gas budget. Climate Change, DOI: 10.1007/s10584-014-1072-9.

Tian H.Q., Chen G., Lu C., Xu X.F., Ren W., Banger K., Zhang B., Tao B., Pan S., Liu M, Zhang C. (2014) Global land-atmosphere exchange of methane and nitrous oxide: magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns, Biogeosciences Discussions, 10, 19811-19865.


Song X., Tian H.*, Xu X.F, Hui D.F, Chen G.S, Somers G, Marzen L, Liu M.L, (2013) Projecting terrestrial carbon sequestration of the Southern United States in response to climate and atmospheric changes in the 21st century, Ecosphere 4(7),88. htp://

Song C.*, Wang L., Tian H.*, Liu D., Lu C., Xu X.F, Zhang L., Wan Z., (2013) Effects of continued nitrogen enrichment on greenhouse gas emissions from a wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China: a 5-year nitrogen addition experiment, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, DOI: 10.1002/jgr.20063.

Xu X.F., Thornton P., Post W.M, (2013) A global analysis of soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems, Global Ecology and Biography, 22, 737-749. DOI: 10.1111/geb.12029.

Tao B., Tian H.Q, Chen G.S., Ren W, Lu C.Q, Alley K.D., Xu X.F., Liu M.L., Pan S.F, Virji H, (2013) Terrestrial carbon balance in tropical Asia: contribution from cropland expansion and land management, Global and Planetary Change, 100, 85-98.


Xu X.F., Tian H.Q (2012) Methane exchange between marshland and the atmosphere over China during 1949-2008, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003946.

Xu X.F., Tian H.Q, Liu M, Ren W., Chen G, Lu C., Zhang C., (2012) Multiple-factor controls on terrestrial N2O flux over North America from 1979 through 2010. Biogeosciences, 9, 1351-1366.

Tian H.Q, Lu C.Q., Chen G.S., Tao B., Pan S.F., Del Grosso S.J, Xu X.F., Bruhwiler L., Wofsy S.C., Kort E.A., Prior S.A. (2012) Contemporary and projected biogenic fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide in North American terrestrial ecosystems, Frontier in Ecology and the Environment, 10, 528-536, DOI: 10.1890/120057.

Song C.C.*, Xu X.F (Equal contribution), Sun X.X, Tian H.Q, Sun L, Miao Y.Q, Wang X.W, Guo Y.D, (2012) Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in northern permafrost region, Environmental Research Letters, 7, 034009, DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034009.

Wang L, Tian H.Q.*, Song C.C, Xu X.F, Chen G.S, Ren W. Lu C, (2012) Net exchanges of CO2, CH4, and N2O between marshland and the atmosphere in Northeast China as influenced by multiple global environmental changes, Atmospheric Environment, 63, 77-85.

W.Q.*, Tian H.Q. Xu X.F. Pan Y.Z., Chen. G.S. (2012) Extension of the growing season due to delayed autumn over mid and high latitudes in North America during 1982-2006. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 260-271. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8283.2011.00675.x.

Liu M., Tian H.Q.*, Lu C, Xu X.F., Chen G., Ren W. (2012) Effects of multiple environmental stresses on evapotranspiration and runoff over the eastern China, Journal of Hydrology, 426-427, 39-54. DOI:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.01.009.

Lu C.Q, Tian H.Q*, Liu M.L, Ren W, Xu X.F., Chen G.S., Zhang C. (2012) Effect of nitrogen deposition on China’s terrestrial carbon uptake in the context of multi-factor environmental changes, Ecological Application, 22, 53-75. DOI: 10.1890/10-1685.1.

Tian H.Q.*, Lu C.Q, Melillo J, Ren W. Huang Y, Xu X.F., Liu M.L., Zhang C, Chen G.S., Pan S.F., Liu J.Y., Reilly J. (2012) Food benefit and climate warming potential of nitrogen fertilizer uses in China, Environmental Research Letters 7(4) 044020, DOI: 1088/1748-9326/7/4/044020.

Tian H.Q.*, Chen G.S, Zhang C., Liu M.L, Sun G., Chappelka A., Ren W., Xu X.F., Lu C.Q., Pan S.F., Chen H., Hui D.F., McNulty S., Lockaby G., Vance E. (2012) Century-scale responses to ecosystem carbon storage and flux to multiple environmental changes in the southern United States, Ecosystems, DOI: 10.1007/s100021-012-9539-x

Miller S.M*, Kort E.A, Hirsch A.I, Dlugokencky E.J, Andrews A.E, Xu X.F, Tian H.Q, Nehrkorn T, Eluszkiewicz, Michalak A.M, Wofsy S.C, (2012) Regional sources of nitrous oxide over the United States: seasonal variation and spatial distribution, Journal of Geophysical Research, DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016951.

Zhang C., Tian H.Q*, Chen G.S., Chappelka A., Xu X.F, Ren W., Liu M.L., Lu C.Q., Pan S.F, Lockaby G, (2012) Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in the Southern United States from 1945 to 2007, Environmental Pollution, DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2012.01.020.


Xu X.F., Tian H.Q*, Miao S.L, Pan Z.J., Thomas C. (2011) Modeling ecosystem responses to prescribed fires in a phosphorus-enriched Everglades wetland: II. Phosphorus dynamics and community shift, Ecological Modeling, 222, 3942-3956.

Tian H*, Xu X.F., Lu C, Liu M, Ren W, Chen G, Melillo J, Liu J (2011) Net exchanges of CO2, CH4, and N2O between China’s terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and their contributions to global climate warming, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116, DOI: 10.1029/2010JG001393.

Song C.C.*, Liu D.Y., Song Y.Y., Yang G.S., Wan, Z.M., Li Y.C., Xu X.F. (2011) Effect of exogenous phosphorus addition on soil respiration in Calamagrostis angustifolia freshwater marshes of Northeast China, Atmospheric Environment, 45, 1402-1406.

Tian H.*, Lu C. Chen G., Xu X.F., Liu M., Ren W., Tao B., Sun G., Pan S., Liu J.(2011) Controls of climate and land use over terrestrial primary productivity, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in Monsoon Asia during the 20th Ecohydrology, 4, 322-340. DOI: 10.1002/eco216.

Tian H.*, Melillo J., Lu, C. Kicklighter D., Liu M. Liu J., Ren W., Xu X.F, Chen G., Zhang C., Pan S., Running S. (2011) China’s terrestrial carbon balance: contributions from multiple global change factors. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB1007, DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003838.

Tao B., Tian H.Q.*, Chen G.S., Ren W., Lu C.Q., Alley K.D, Xu X.F., Liu M., Pan S., Virj H. (2011) Changes in carbon fluxes and pools induced by cropland expansion in South and Southeast Asia in the 20th century., Biogeosciences Discussion, 8, 11979-12012.

Ren W., Tian H.Q.*, Xu X.F., Liu, M.L., Lu C.Q., Chen G.S., Melillo J., Reilly J., Liu J.Y. (2011) Spatial and temporal patterns of CO2 and CH4 fluxes in China’s croplands in response to multifactor environmental changes. Tellus B, 63B, 222-240. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00522.x.

Ren W. Tian. H.Q*, Tao B., Chappelka. A., Sun G., Lu C.Q., Liu M.L., Chen G.S., Xu X.F. (2011) Impacts of tropospheric ozone and climate change on net primary productivity and net carbon exchange of China’s forest ecosystems assessed with the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM). Global Ecology and Biogeography. 20, 391-406. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8283.2010.00606.x


Xu X.F, Tian HQ*. Zhang C., Liu M., Ren W., Chen G., Lu C., Bruhwiler, L. (2010). Attribution of spatial and temporal variations in terrestrial ecosystem methane flux over North America. Biogeosciences, 7, 3637-3655.

Lu D.*, Xu X.F., Tian H., Moran E., Zhao M.S., Running S. (2010) The effects of urbanization on net primary productivity in Southeastern China. Environmental Management, 46, 404-410, DOI: 10.1007/s00257-010-9542-y.

Tian, H.*, Xu, X.F., Miao, S., Sindhoj, E., Beltran, B.J., Pan, Z., (2010). Model ecosystem responses to prescribed fires in a phosphorus-enriched Everglades wetland: I. phosphorus dynamics and cattail recovery. Ecological Modelling 221, 1252-1266.

Tian H.Q, Xu X.F, Liu M., Ren W., Zhang C., Chen G., Lu C. (2010) Spatial and temporal patterns of terrestrial ecosystem CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America during 1979-2008: application of a global ecosystem model. Biogeosciences, 7, 2673-2694.

Tian, H.Q, Chen, G., Liu, M., Zhang, C., Sun, G., Lu, C., Xu, X.F., Ren, W., Pan, S., Chappelka, A., (2010). Model estimates of net primary productivity, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southern United States during 1895-2007. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 1311-1327.

Bai J.H, Cui B.S., Yang Z.F, Xu X.F., Ding Q.Y., Gao H.F. (2010) Heavy metal contamination of cultivated wetland soils along a typical plateau lake from southwest China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 59(8), 1781-1788.

Tian H. Q.*, Liu M., Zhang C. Ren W. Xu X. F. Chen G. S. Lu C. Tao B. (2010) The Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) for simulating terrestrial processes and interactions in the context of multifactor global change. Acat Geographica Sinica, 65(9), 1027-1047. (In Chinese with English abstract)


Duan H.T.*, Ma R.H., Xu X.F.*, Kong F.X., Zhang S.X., Kong W.J., Hao J.Y., Shang L.L. (2009) 2-Decade reconstruction of algae blooming in China’s Lake Taihu. Environmental Science and Technology, 43, 3522-3528.

Song C.C.*, Xu X.F., Tian H.Q*, Wang Y.Y. (2009) Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and N2O and ecosystem respiration in wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeastern China. Global Change Biology. 15, 692-705. DOI.10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01821.x.

Bai J.H.*, Cui B.S., Xu X.F., Ding Q.Y., Gao H.F. (2009). Heavy metal contamination in riverine soils upstream and downstream of a hydroelectric dam on the Lancang River, China, Environmental Engineering Science, 26(5), 941-946. Doi:10.1089/ees.2008.0136.


Xu X.F.*, Tian H., and Hui D. (2008) Convergence in the relationship of CO2 and N2O exchanges between soil and atmosphere within terrestrial ecosystems, Global Change Biology. 14(7): 1651-1660. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01595.x.


Xu X.F., Tian H.*, and Wan S. (2007) Climate warming impacts on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystem. Journal of Plant Ecology, 31(2): 175-188. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Tian H.*, Xu X.F., Song X. (2007) Drought impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity. Journal of Plant Ecology, 31(2): 231-241.(In Chinese with English abstract)

Ren, W., Tian H.*, Liu, M., Zhang, C., Chen, G., Pan, S., Felzer, B. and Xu XF (2007), Effects of tropospheric ozone pollution on net primary productivity and carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of China. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D22S09, DOI: 10.1029/2007JD008521.

Zhang L., Song C.*, Wang D, Wang Y., Xu X.F. (2007). The variation of methane emission from freshwater marshes and response to the exogenous N in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Atmospheric Environment, 41: 4063-4072.

Jin Y.M, Xu X.F., Xu H. (2007) Progress on Organic Carbon in Rhizosphere Micro-ecosystem, Hubei Agricultural Sciences, 46(4), DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0439-8114.2007.04.060. (In Chinese with English Abstract)

Before 2007

Zhang L, Song C, Wang D, Xu XF. (2006) Research advances for the effects of nitrogen input on terrestrial ecosystem carbon pool, Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 37(2): 356-361. (In Chinese with English Abstract)

Xu X.F., C Song, X Song. (2005) Linking of Microorganisms to Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide Dynamics. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 25(1): 182-187.

Song X., Liu Y., Xu X.F. (2005) Evaluating the measurement results of eddy covariance system at two heights using two methods. Journal of graduate school to Chinese Academy of Sciences, 22(3): 386-393.

Bai J.H., Ouyang H, Wang Q.G., Zhou C.P, Xu X.F. (2005) Spatial variations in daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface of Xianghai National Nature Reserve, China, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 17(1), 54-58.

Xu X.F., Song C, Song X. (2004) Study on Carbon Mineralization and the Related Enzyme Activity. Ecology Environment. 13(1): 40-42.

Song C.C, Yang W.Y, Xu X.F., Lou Y.J., Zhang J.B. (2004) Dynamics of CO2 and CH4 concentration in the mire soil and its impact factors. Environmental Science, 25(4): 1-6. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Xu X.F., Song C, Song X. (2004) Limitation of Available Carbon on Microbial Respiration in the Calamagrostis Angustifolia Journal of graduate school to Chinese Academy of Sciences, 21(4): 538-542.

Xu X.F., Song C. (2004) Advances of the research on missing sink in global carbon cycling. Journal of graduate school to Chinese Academy of Sciences, 21(2): 152-159. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Xu X.F., Song C, Song X. Yang. H. (2004) Effect of carbon availability on microbial activity in Calamagrostis angustifolia Wetland Science. 2(1): 68-73.

Song X, Liu Y, Xu X.F. (2004) Comparison study on carbon dioxide, water and heat fluxes of the forest ecosystem in red earth hilly zone over winter and spring. Resources Science, 26(3): 96-104. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Xu X.F., Song C, Song X, Wang G. Zhang Y. (2003) Comparison of the alkali marsh soil and agricultural soil on nutrient retention in Western Jilin, China. Wetland Science2(2): 147-152.

Song X, Liu Y, XuF. (2003) Comparison of Static Chamber and Eddy Covariance on Carbon Flux Measuring. Jiangxi Science, (3):206-210. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Bai J, W Deng W, Fang H, Xu X.F. (2002) Spatial Variation of Pb in the Soil-plant System of Vertical Zone in Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve. Journal of environmental sciences. 14(3): 325-333. (In Chinese with English abstract)



Xu, X.F., Thornton, P.E., Post, M.W. (2014) A Compilation of Global Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Data. Archived at ORNL-DAAC.


Book Chapter and Meeting Report

Goswami S, Xu X.F., Hayes D. (2015) Four key areas for training the next-generation of global change researchers. PeerJ PrePrints 3:e1171

Goswami, S., Xu X.F., Hayes D. J. (2013), Reviewing Global Change Research and Recommending Future Priorities, Eos Trans. AGU, 94(46), 426.

Tian H.Q., Xu X.F., Miao S.L., Pan Z.J, Thomas C. (2011) Responses of plant biomass and total phosphorus in water and soil to different fire regimes in Everglades’ wetlands: a modeling study. In Miao S.L. Thomas C. Evaluating Natural Recovery and Fire Effects in Phosphorus-Enriched Water Conservation Area 2A, Fire Project Final Report. West Palm Beach, Florida, USA.

Tian H.Q., Xu X.F., Zhang C., Ren W., Chen G.S., Liu M.L., Lu D.S, Pan S..(2008) Forecasting and assessing the large-scale and long-term impacts of global environmental change on terrestrial ecosystems in the United States and China. In: Real World Ecology: large-scale and long-term case studies and methods. (Miao S., Carstenn S., and Nungesser M. eds), Springer, New York.

Liu, M., Tian H.Q., Zhang C., Chen G., Ren W., Xu X.F., Pan S., Wang X., and Nagy C.. (2007). Effects of urbanization and land-use change on water yield – A case study of Haihe Basin in China. Laband, D. (eds) Emerging Issues Along Urban/Rural Interfaces 2: Linking Land-Use Science and Society. Conference Proceedings, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-12, 2007.