Tobacco Use Among Emergency Department Patients of Diverse Ethnic Minority Groups
Susan I. Woodruff, Ph.D.
Maria Luisa Zuñiga, Ph.D.
Because emergency department (ED) patients typically have high tobacco use rates, because lower income individuals may disproportionately use the ED due to lack of insurance and primary care, and because the ED is a point of entry into the health care delivery system, the ED presents a unique opportunity for tobacco use screening and brief intervention (teaching and learning activity). This study conducted analyses of existing data from the California Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Program (CASBIRT), a large demonstration project that collected data in 12 ED/trauma units throughout San Diego County. Although CASBIRT collected data on tobacco use among all patients screened, its focus is on alcohol and illicit drug use. Tobacco use data have not been analyzed for the about 60,000 patients screened to date, and minimal intervention is delivered for tobacco use. This one-year study analyzed existing CASBIRT tobacco data, exploring and assessing prevalence and correlates of use among diverse ethnic minority groups. Results indicated a lower prevalence of tobacco use among Latino patients compared to Black and Non-Latino White patients. Compared to their general population counterparts, Non-Latino White, Latino, and Black patients were more likely to have used tobacco in their lifetime and on a daily basis; that is, ED patients are at a high risk of using tobacco, regardless of ethnicity. For all racial/ethnic groups, males, younger individuals, those with lower income, and those at higher risk for alcohol and drug use were more likely to report recent tobacco use. ED holds potential to improve accessibility to public health interventions for many underserved communities who may not have regular interaction with a primary care provider. Results may be used to inform the development of brief, effective tobacco cessation programs that can be used in the ED.
Project Period: 9/1/2009 – 8/31/2011
Woodruff, SI, Zúñiga, ML, & Lawrenz, J. Ethnoracial Differences in Emergency Department Patients’ Tobacco Use (2011). Nicotine Tob Res, 13 (11): 1037-1044.
McCabe, CT, Woodruff, SI, & Zúñiga, ML. Sociodemographic and substance use correlates of tobacco use in a large, multi-ethnic sample of emergency department patients, Addictive Behaviors, Volume 36, Issue 9, September 2011, Pages 899-905.
Woodruff, SI, Zúñiga de Nuncio, ML, Lawrenz, J, & McCabe, CT. Tobacco Use among Emergency Department Patients of Diverse Ethnic Groups. Presented at the SDSU School of Social Work Wine and Cheese Community-Research Event, San Diego, CA, March 22, 2011.
McCabe, CT, Woodruff, SI, & Zúñiga de Nuncio, ML, Funn, J., & Lawrenz, J. Substance Use Correlates of Tobacco Use among Emergency Department Patients. Presented at the 2010 Student Research Symposium, San Diego State University, March 5-6, 2010.
Woodruff, SI, Zúñiga de Nuncio, ML, Lawrenz, J, & McCabe, CT. Tobacco Use among Emergency Department Patients of Diverse Ethnic Groups. Presented at the “Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Conference: Seizing the Teachable Moment.” San Diego, CA, September 10, 2010.